This is an R notebook with codes to replicate all the tables and figures in the paper “Camouflaged Propaganda: A Survey Experiment on Political Native Advertising” and its Online Appendices. To replicate the analysis, please download the replication data to the same folder as this .rmd file and run the .rmd file in R. You can also copy and paste the code chunks to a .r file and run the codes only.

Load data and packages

Codebook

Variable Variable Type Values
G.Ewapo Group Indicator \(1\): Primed Wapo Group;
\(0\): Otherwise
G.Wapo Group Indicator \(1\): Wapo Group;
\(0\): Otherwise
G.Etele Group Indicator \(1\): Primed Telegraph Group;
\(0\): Otherwise
G.Tele Group Indicator \(1\): Telegrapg Group;
\(0\): Otherwise
G.CDw Group Indicator \(1\): China Daily Article W Group;
\(0\): Otherwise
G.CDt Group Indicator \(1\): China Daily Article T Group;
\(0\): Otherwise
Tr.WapoA Treatment Indicator \(1\): Received Wapo China Watch article (Primed Wapo and Wapo Groups);
\(0\): Otherwise (The other 4 groups)
Tr.TeleA Treatment Indicator \(1\): Received Telegraph China Watch article (Primed Telegraph and Telegraph Groups);
\(0\): Otherwise (The other 4 groups)
CorSour DV: Detecting source \(1\): Identified source of artical as China Daily ;
\(0\): Otherwise
PreTrust.Wapo Pre-treatment Trust in The Washington Post \(1\): None at all; \(2\): A little; \(3\): Somewhat trust
\(4\): A Moderate amount; \(5\): A lot; \(6\): A great deal
PreTrust.Tele Pre-treatment Trust in The Telegraph \(1\): None at all; \(2\): A little; \(3\): Somewhat trust
\(4\): A Moderate amount; \(5\): A lot; \(6\): A great deal
PostTrust.Wapo Post-treatment Trust in The Washington Post \(1\): None at all; \(2\): A little; \(3\): Somewhat trust
\(4\): A Moderate amount; \(5\): A lot; \(6\): A great deal;
NA: Respondents did not receive Wapo article or did not answer
PostTrust.Tele Post-treatment Trust in The Telegraph \(1\): None at all; \(2\): A little; \(3\): Somewhat trust
\(4\): A Moderate amount; \(5\): A lot; \(6\): A great deal;
NA: Respondents did not receive Telegraph article or did not answer
Conv DV: Level of Persuasiveness \(1\): Highly unconvincing; \(2\): Unconvincing; \(3\): Somewhat convincing;
\(4\): Convincing; \(5\): Highly convincing
Female Demographic \(1\): Female;
\(0\): Male
Income Demographic: Pre-tax household income \(1\): Less than \(\$10,000\); \(2\): \(\$10,000\) to \(\$19,999\); \(3\): \(\$20,000\) to \(\$29,999\);
\(4\): \(\$30,000\) to \(\$39,999\); \(5\): \(\$40,000\) to \(\$49,999\); \(6\): \(\$50,000\) to \(\$59,999\)
\(7\): \(\$60,000\) to \(\$69,999\); \(8\): \(\$70,000\) to \(\$79,999\); \(9\): \(\$80,000\) to \(\$89,999\)
\(10\): \(\$90,000\) to \(\$99,999\); \(11\):\(\$100,000\) to \(\$149,999\);
\(12\): \(\$150,000\) or more
Edu Demographic \(1\): Less than high school degree;
\(2\): High school graduate (high school diploma or equivalent including GED);
\(3\): Some college but no degree; \(4\): Associate degree in college (2-year);
\(5\): Bachelor’s degree in college (4-year); \(6\): Master’s degree;
\(7\): Professional degree (JD, MD); \(8\): Doctoral degree

Descriptive Statistics

Appendix A Table 1

Detecting PNA

Table 1

## 
## ==============================================
##                       Dependent variable:     
##                   ----------------------------
##                          Correct Source       
##                        (1)            (2)     
## ----------------------------------------------
## Washington Post      2.726***      2.854***   
##                      (0.241)        (0.252)   
##                                               
## Education Priming     0.413*        0.468*    
##                      (0.238)        (0.246)   
##                                               
## Media Experience                     0.028    
##                                     (0.041)   
##                                               
## Media Literacy                      -0.022    
##                                     (0.035)   
##                                               
## MediaTrust                           0.049    
##                                     (0.048)   
##                                               
## Age                   0.011          0.012    
##                      (0.010)        (0.011)   
##                                               
## Education                            0.128    
##                                     (0.097)   
##                                               
## Income                               0.038    
##                                     (0.039)   
##                                               
## Female                              -0.110    
##                                     (0.252)   
##                                               
## Constant            -2.271***       -3.754*   
##                      (0.473)        (2.045)   
##                                               
## ----------------------------------------------
## Observations           444            439     
## Log Likelihood       -222.462      -213.998   
## Akaike Inf. Crit.    452.923        447.995   
## ==============================================
## Note:              *p<0.1; **p<0.05; ***p<0.01

Appendix

Quality of Responses

Appendix A Table 3

## 
## ==============================================
##                       Dependent variable:     
##                   ----------------------------
##                          Correct Source       
##                        (1)            (2)     
## ----------------------------------------------
## Washington Post      2.821***      2.963***   
##                      (0.259)        (0.272)   
##                                               
## Education Priming    0.590**        0.676**   
##                      (0.255)        (0.263)   
##                                               
## Media Experience                     0.035    
##                                     (0.044)   
##                                               
## Media Literacy                      -0.023    
##                                     (0.037)   
##                                               
## MediaTrust                           0.053    
##                                     (0.050)   
##                                               
## Age                   0.012          0.013    
##                      (0.011)        (0.012)   
##                                               
## Education                            0.128    
##                                     (0.103)   
##                                               
## Income                               0.044    
##                                     (0.041)   
##                                               
## Female                              -0.207    
##                                     (0.269)   
##                                               
## Constant            -2.448***       -4.053*   
##                      (0.509)        (2.178)   
##                                               
## ----------------------------------------------
## Observations           404            401     
## Log Likelihood       -197.340      -190.458   
## Akaike Inf. Crit.    402.681        400.916   
## ==============================================
## Note:              *p<0.1; **p<0.05; ***p<0.01

Additional Robustness Checks

Appendix A Table 6

## 
## ===========================================================================================
##                                               Dependent variable:                          
##                     -----------------------------------------------------------------------
##                                          Post-Pre Difference in Trust                      
##                               (1)                     (2)                     (3)          
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Pre-treatment Trust        -0.625***               -0.655***               -0.661***       
##                             (0.052)                 (0.053)                 (0.053)        
##                                                                                            
## Media Trust                                          0.040                   0.039         
##                                                     (0.029)                 (0.029)        
##                                                                                            
## Media Literacy                                      -0.023                  -0.024         
##                                                     (0.020)                 (0.020)        
##                                                                                            
## Media Experience                                   0.068***                0.066***        
##                                                     (0.025)                 (0.025)        
##                                                                                            
## Identify Source             0.325**                 0.287**                 0.279*         
##                             (0.144)                 (0.144)                 (0.144)        
##                                                                                            
## Age                                                 -0.004                  -0.002         
##                                                     (0.007)                 (0.007)        
##                                                                                            
## Female                                                                      -0.031         
##                                                                             (0.148)        
##                                                                                            
## Education                                                                   0.098*         
##                                                                             (0.056)        
##                                                                                            
## Income                                                                      -0.036         
##                                                                             (0.023)        
##                                                                                            
## Constant                   1.428***                  0.644                   0.528         
##                             (0.215)                 (1.119)                 (1.159)        
##                                                                                            
## -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
## Observations                  303                     300                     300          
## R2                           0.328                   0.357                   0.367         
## Adjusted R2                  0.324                   0.344                   0.347         
## Residual Std. Error    1.240 (df = 300)        1.224 (df = 293)        1.221 (df = 290)    
## F Statistic         73.367*** (df = 2; 300) 27.098*** (df = 6; 293) 18.658*** (df = 9; 290)
## ===========================================================================================
## Note:                                                           *p<0.1; **p<0.05; ***p<0.01

Appendix A Figure 1